David Ghedini

Linux, Java, Oracle, and PostgreSQL


David Ghedini

Thursday May 26, 2011

Installing Tomcat 7 on Slackware 13

This entry will cover installing and configuration of Tomcat 7 on Slackware 13

It will also work for Tomcat 6.x.

We'll install the JDK, Tomcat, create a start/stop script, and configure Tomcat to run as a service and start at boot.

For this installation, we'll use Tomcat 7.0.14, the current release of Tomcat 7.

To begin, we'll install the Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.6 update 25

JDK 1.6 is the minimum JDK version required for Tomcat 7.


Step 1: Install the JDK


Download the JDK here: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html

We'll use the latest, JDK 6 Update 25. The JDK is specific to 32 and 64 bit versions.

My Slackware box is 32 bit, so I'll need: jdk-6u25-linux-i586.bin

If you are on 32 bit, you'll need: jdk-6u25-linux-x64.bin

Download the JDK and save it to a directory. I'm saving it to /opt.


Create a new directory /usr/java.
root@slackd:~# mkdir /usr/java  

Change to the /usr/java directory we created and install the JDK using 'sh /opt/jdk-6u25-linux-i586.bin'
root@slackd:~# cd /usr/java
root@slackd:/usr/java# sh /opt/jdk-6u25-linux-i586.bin

Set the JAVA_HOME path to the location we installed our JDK above.

To set it for your current session, you can issue the following from the CLI:
root@slackd:/usr/java# JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.6.0_25
root@slackd:/usr/java# export JAVA_HOME
root@slackd:/usr/java# PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
root@slackd:/usr/java# export PATH
Step 2: Download and Unpack Tomcat 7.0.14


Download apache-tomcat-7.0.14.tar.gz here

Save the file to the /usr/share directory In the /usr/share directory, unpack the file using tar -xzf:

root@slackd:~# cd /usr/share
root@slackd:/usr/share# tar -xzf apache-tomcat-7.0.14.tar.gz  
This will create the directory /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14

Step 3: Configuring Tomcat to Run as a Service.


We will now create a simple Start/Stop/Restart script and configure Tomcat to run as a service. We will also configure Tomcat to start at boot.

Change to the /etc/rc.d directory and create a script called 'tomcat' as shown below.

root@slackd:~# cd /etc/rc.d
root@slackd:/etc/rc.d# vi rc.tomcat
#!/bin/bash
JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.6.0_25
export JAVA_HOME
PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
export PATH
CATALINA_HOME=/usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14

case $1 in
start)
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/startup.sh
;; 
stop)   
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/shutdown.sh
;; 
restart)
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/shutdown.sh
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/startup.sh
;; 
esac    
exit 0
In the above script, we are simply calling the startup.sh and shutdown.sh scripts located in the Tomcat bin directory (/usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/bin).

CATALINA_HOME is the Tomcat home directory (/usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14)

Now, set the permissions for your script to make it executable:

root@slackd: /etc/rc.d# chmod 755 tomcat
We can now run tomcat as a background service using: /etc/rc.d/rc.tomcat start | stop | restart

Test our script.

Start Tomcat:
root@slackd:~# /etc/rc.d/rc.tomcat start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/java/jdk1.6.0_25
Using CLASSPATH:       /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/bin/bootstrap.jar:/usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/bin/tomcat-juli.jar
Stop Tomcat:

root@slackd:~# /etc/rc.d/rc.tomcat stop
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/java/jdk1.6.0_25
Using CLASSPATH:       /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/bin/bootstrap.jar:/usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/bin/tomcat-juli.jar
Restarting Tomcat (Must be started first):

root@slackd:~# /etc/rc.d/rc.tomcat restart
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/java/jdk1.6.0_25
Using CLASSPATH:       /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/bin/bootstrap.jar:/usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/bin/tomcat-juli.jar
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/java/jdk1.6.0_25
Using CLASSPATH:       /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/bin/bootstrap.jar:/usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/bin/tomcat-juli.jar
You should review the Catalina.out log located at /usr/share/apache-tomcat-7.0.14/logs/catalina.out and check for any errors.

You should now be able to access Tomcat at:

http://yourdomain.com:8080 or http://yourIPaddress:8080 and we should see the Tomcat home page.
FInally, to enable Tomcat to start at boot time, add the following lines to /etc/rc.local:
if [ -x /etc/rc.d/rc.tomcat ]; then
/etc/rc.d/rc.tomcat start
Related Tomcat Posts

Learn More About Apache Tomcat 7 Apache Tomcat Foundation Tomcat 7

Bookmark and Share



Friday Mar 04, 2011

Install Tomcat 6 on CentOS or RHEL

This post will cover installation and configuration of Tomcat 6 on CentOS 5.

We will also show how to run Tomcat as a service, create a start/stop script, and configure Tomcat to run under a non-root user.

This post has been updated for Tomcat 6.0.32.

This post below will work with any Tomcat 6.x version, but I have been keeping it updated to keep the links consistent and to make it as "copying-and-paste" as possible.

If you are looking for our tutorial on installing Tomcat 7 on CentOS/RHEL, you can find it here.

This installation of Tomcat 6.0.32 was done on CentOS 5.5, but any CentOS 5.x should work, as well as RHEL and Fedora.

If you do not already have the Java Development Kit (JDK) installed on your machine, you will need to download and install the required JDK for your platform.

If you do have the JDK installed, you can skip to: Step 2: Download and Install the Tomcat 6.0.32:

Step 1: Install the JDK


You can download the JDK here: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html

I'm using the latest, which is JDK 6, update 24. The JDK is specific to 32 and 64 bit versions.

My CentOS box is 64 bit, so I'll need: jdk-6u24-linux-x64.bin.

If you are on 32 bit, you'll need: jdk-6u24-linux-i586.bin

Download the appropriate JDK and save it to a directory. I'm saving it to /root.

Move (mv) or copy (cp) the file to the /opt directory:

[root@blanche ~]# mv jdk-6u24-linux-x64.bin /opt/jdk-6u24-linux-x64.bin  


Create a new directory /usr/java.

[root@blanche ~]# mkdir /usr/java  


Change to the /usr/java directory we created and install the JDK using 'sh /opt/jdk-6u24-linux-x64.bin'

[root@blanche ~]# cd /usr/java
[root@blanche java]# sh /opt/jdk-6u24-linux-x64.bin


Set the JAVA_HOME path. This is where we installed our JDK above.

To set it for your current session, you can issue the following from the CLI:

[root@blanche java]# JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.6.0_24
[root@blanche java]# export JAVA_HOME
[root@blanche java]# PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
[root@blanche java]# export PATH


To set the JAVA_HOME for users, we add below to the user ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile of the user. We can also add it /etc/profile and then source it to give to all users.

JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.6.0_24
export JAVA_HOME
PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
export PATH


Once you have added the above to ~/.bash_profile or ~/.bashrc, you should log out, then log back in and check that the JAVA_HOME is set correctly.

[root@blanche ~]#  echo $JAVA_HOME
/usr/java/jdk1.6.0_24


Step 2: Download and Install Tomcat 6.0.32:


Download apache-tomcat-6.0.32.tar.gz here

Save the file to a directory. I'm saving it to /root/apache-tomcat-6.0.32.tar.gz

Before proceeding, you should verify the MD5 Checksum for your Tomcat download (or any other download).

Since we saved the Tomcat download to /root/apache-tomcat-6.0.32.tar.gz, we'll go to the /root directory and use the md5sum command.

[root@blanche ~]# md5sum apache-tomcat-6.0.32.tar.gz
082a0707985b6c029920d4d6d5ec11cd


Compare the output above to the MD5 Checksum provided by the Apache Tomcat MD5 page and insure that they match exactly. (There is also a link to display the MD5 checksum located just to the right off the download link).

Now, move (mv) or copy (cp) the file to the /usr/share directory:

[root@blanche ~]# mv apache-tomcat-6.0.32.tar.gz /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32.tar.gz


Change to the /usr/share directory and unpack the file using tar -xzf:

[root@blanche ~]# cd /usr/share
[root@sv2 blanche ]# tar -xzf apache-tomcat-6.0.32.tar.gz  


This will create the directory /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32

At this point, you could start Tomcat via the Tomcat bin directory using the Tomcat startup.sh script located at /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/bin.

[root@blanche share]# cd /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/bin
[root@blanche bin]# ./startup.sh


Step 3: How to Run Tomcat as a Service.


We will now see how to run Tomcat as a service and create a simple Start/Stop/Restart script, as well as to start Tomcat at boot.

Change to the /etc/init.d directory and create a script called 'tomcat' as shown below.

[root@blanche share]# cd /etc/init.d
[root@blanche init.d]# vi tomcat


#!/bin/bash
# description: Tomcat Start Stop Restart
# processname: tomcat
# chkconfig: 234 20 80
JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.6.0_24
export JAVA_HOME
PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
export PATH
CATALINA_HOME=/usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32

case $1 in
start)
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/startup.sh
;; 
stop)   
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/shutdown.sh
;; 
restart)
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/shutdown.sh
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/startup.sh
;; 
esac    
exit 0


The above script is simple and contains all of the basic elements you will need to get going.

As you can see, we are simply calling the startup.sh and shutdown.sh scripts located in the Tomcat bin directory (/usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/bin).

You can adjust your script according to your needs and, in subsequent posts, we'll look at additional examples.

CATALINA_HOME is the Tomcat home directory (/usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32)

Now, set the permissions for your script to make it executable:

[root@blanche init.d]# chmod 755 tomcat


We now use the chkconfig utility to have Tomcat start at boot time. In my script above, I am using chkconfig: 244 20 80. 2445 are the run levels and 20 and 80 are the stop and start priorities respectively. You can adjust as needed.

[root@blanche init.d]# chkconfig --add tomcat
[root@blanche init.d]# chkconfig --level 234 tomcat on


Verify it:

[root@blanche init.d]# chkconfig --list tomcat
tomcat          0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:off   6:off


Now, let's test our script.

Start Tomcat:

[root@blanche ~]# service tomcat start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/java/jdk1.6.0_24
Using CLASSPATH:       /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/bin/bootstrap.jar


Stop Tomcat:

[root@blanche ~]# service tomcat stop
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/java/jdk1.6.0_24
Using CLASSPATH:       /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/bin/bootstrap.jar
Restarting Tomcat (Must be started first):

[root@blanche ~]# service tomcat restart
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/java/jdk1.6.0_24
Using CLASSPATH:       /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/bin/bootstrap.jar
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/java/jdk1.6.0_24
Using CLASSPATH:       /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/bin/bootstrap.jar


We should review the Catalina.out log located at /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/logs/catalina.out and check for any errors.

[root@blanche init.d]# less /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/logs/catalina.out


We can now access the Tomcat Manager page at:

http://yourdomain.com:8080 or http://yourIPaddress:8080 and we should see the Tomcat home page.

Step 5 (Optional): How to Run Tomcat using Minimally Privileged (non-root) User.


In our Tomcat configuration above, we are running Tomcat as Root.

For security reasons, it is always best to run services with the only those privileges that are necessary.

There are some who make a strong case that this is not required, but it's always best to err on the side of caution.

To run Tomcat as non-root user, we need to do the following:

1. Create the group 'tomcat':

[root@blanche ~]# groupadd tomcat
[root@blanche ~]# useradd -s /bin/bash -g tomcat tomcat


2. Create the user 'tomcat' and add this user to the tomcat group we created above.

[root@blanche ~]# groupadd tomcat
[root@blanche ~]# useradd -s /bin/bash -g tomcat tomcat


The above will create a home directory for the user tomcat in the default user home as /home/tomcat

If we want the home directory to be elsewhere, we simply specify so using the -d switch.

[root@blanche ~]# useradd -g tomcat -d /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/tomcat tomcat


The above will create the user tomcat's home directory as /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/tomcat

3. Change ownership of the tomcat files to the user we created above:

[root@blanche ~]# chown -Rf tomcat.tomcat /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/


Note: it is possible to enhance our security still further by making certain files and directory read-only. This will not be covered in this post and care should be used when setting such permissions.

4. Adjust the start/stop service script we created above. In our new script, we need to su to the user tomcat:

#!/bin/bash
# description: Tomcat Start Stop Restart
# processname: tomcat
# chkconfig: 234 20 80
JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.6.0_24
export JAVA_HOME
PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
export PATH
TOMCAT_HOME=/usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.32/bin

case $1 in
start)
/bin/su tomcat $TOMCAT_HOME/startup.sh
;; 
stop)   
/bin/su tomcat $TOMCAT_HOME/shutdown.sh
;; 
restart)
/bin/su tomcat $TOMCAT_HOME/shutdown.sh
/bin/su tomcat $TOMCAT_HOME/startup.sh
;; 
esac    
exit 0


Step 6 (Optional): How to Run Tomcat on Port 80 as Non-Root User.


Note: the following applies when you are running Tomcat in "stand alone" mode. That is, you are running Tomcat without Apache in front of it.

To run services below port 1024 as a user other than root, you can add the following to your IP tables:

[root@blanche ~]# iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j REDIRECT --to-ports 8080  
[root@blanche ~]# iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -p udp -m udp --dport 80 -j REDIRECT --to-ports 8080  


Learn More About Apache Tomcat

Apache Tomcat Foundation

Tomcat 6



Tomcat 6 Hosting

Bookmark and Share



Tuesday Mar 01, 2011

Tomcat Oracle JDBC

This post will cover connecting your Tomcat web application to Oracle via JDBC using Tomcat's JNDI emulation ability.

We'll be creating this example using Tomcat 6.0.29 on CentOS 5.5

In our example, we'll create a connection for an application in the Tomcat/webapps/ROOT directory.

We'll also do the same for an application in a directory other than ROOT (e.g. Tomcat/webapps/myapp).

In our examples below, I have installed Tomcat at /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29.

Adjust this to your Tomcat installation as required.

First, let's create a simple test table in Oracle.

CREATE TABLE  DEMO_CUSTOMERS 
   (    CUSTOMER_ID NUMBER, 
    CUST_FIRST_NAME VARCHAR2(20), 
    CUST_LAST_NAME VARCHAR2(20) 
    
   )


Now, let's populate it with some data.

INSERT INTO DEMO_CUSTOMERS VALUES (1, 'John ', 'Dulles');
INSERT INTO DEMO_CUSTOMERS VALUES (2, 'William ', 'Hartsfield');
INSERT INTO DEMO_CUSTOMERS VALUES (3, 'Edward', 'Logan');
INSERT INTO DEMO_CUSTOMERS VALUES (4, 'Edward "Butch"', 'OHAare');
INSERT INTO DEMO_CUSTOMERS VALUES (5, 'Fiorello', 'Lambert');
INSERT INTO DEMO_CUSTOMERS VALUES (6, 'Albert', 'Hartsfield');
INSERT INTO DEMO_CUSTOMERS VALUES (7, 'Eugene', 'Bradley');


1. Download the required drivers


You will need to download the required Oracle JDBC drivers from the OTN

Both ojdbc6.jar and ojdbc14.jar will work for this example.

Additionally, since I will be using JSP Standard Tag Library (or JSTL), I will also need to download standard.jar and jstl.jar, which you can download here.

2. Move the drivers above to: /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/lib


[root@sv2 ~]# mv ojdbc14.jar /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/lib/ojdbc14.jar
[root@sv2 ~]# mv standard.jar /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/lib/standard.jar
[root@sv2 ~]# mv jstl.jar /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/lib/jstl.jar


By placing the drivers in the TOMCAT_HOME/lib directory, we are making them available to all applications.

3. Create the JDBC JNDI resource for our default context 


Since we are using the ROOT directory, we will be using /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/conf/context.xml.

Add the following:

<Resource name="jdbc/oradb"
          auth="Container"
          type="javax.sql.DataSource"
          driverClassName="oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver"
          url="jdbc:oracle:thin:@host:1521:sid"
          username="username"
          password="password"
          maxActive="20"
          maxIdle="30"
          maxWait="-1"
/>


Replace the url, username, and password above with your own.

I've used 'oradb' as my resource name. You can use whatever you like.

For an explanation of maxActive, maxIdle, and maxWait, and other attributes, please see the Context Configuration section of the Tomcat JNDI Datasource HOW-TO

4. Add a Resource-Ref to our web.xml file. 


Again, we are using the ROOT directory so we'll add our resource-ref to /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/web.xml


jdbc/oradb
javax.sql.DataSource
Container


5. Create a JSP page to test our set up. 


I'll call the file mytest.jsp and place it into the ROOT directory (/usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/webapps/ROOT)

<%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/sql" prefix="sql" %>
<%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core" prefix="c" %>

  <html>
  <head>

    
       select * from DEMO_CUSTOMERS
    

  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>Testing JDBC JINDI Oracle</h1>
    <table width='500' border='1'>
      <tr>
        <th align='left'>Customer Id</th>
        <th align='left'>Customer First Name</th>
        <th align='left'>Customer Last Name</th>
      </tr>
      <c:forEach var="democusts" items="${democusts.rows}">
        <tr>
           <td> ${democusts.CUSTOMER_ID}</td>
           <td> ${democusts.CUST_FIRST_NAME} </td>
           <td> ${democusts.CUST_LAST_NAME} </td>
       </tr>
      </c:forEach>
    </table>
  </body>
  </html>


Now start (or restart) Tomcat to allow it to read the changes to our configuration files

[root@sv2 ~]# service tomcat start
Using CATALINA_BASE:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29
Using CATALINA_HOME:   /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29
Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/temp
Using JRE_HOME:        /usr/java/jdk1.6.0_23
Using CLASSPATH:       /usr/share/apache-tomcat-6.0.29/bin/bootstrap.jar 


We can now navigate to http://YourDomain.com:8080/mytest.jsp and we should see the following:



6. Locations when using directory outside of ROOT. 


If you web application does not live in the ROOT directory, you can apply the above to using the following locations within your application.

For an application called "MyApp", for example, you could use the following locations.

JDBC JNDI Resource: Webapps>MyApp>META-INF/context.xml

Resource-Ref: Webapps>MyApp>WEB-INF/web.xml

Drivers: Webapps>MyApp>WEB-INF/lib/{ojdbc14.jar, standard.jar, jstl.jar}

If any of the directories or files above do not exist, you will need to create them.

Again, you can leave the drivers under Tomcat/lib if you want them to be available to all applications.

For more information, see Apache Tomcat JNDI Datasource HOW-TO

Related Posts:

Install Tomcat 6 on CentOS

Tomcat Manager Password

Tomcat Custom 404 Page

Bookmark and Share




Main Menu

Built With

Search

Pages

LinkedIn

Tag Cloud

Hosted by:

Navigation

Visitors

Sponsors

petiole Cloud

Feeds